SOME IDEAS ALOUD ABOUT A PROBLEM "ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE"
Kruglov V. V. (Photo)
Some features of concept "Artificial intelligence" are considered. Classification of systems of an artificial intelligence is offered, directions of possible researches are discussed.
1. The artificial intelligence (AI) is better for using in structure of a word-combination "System (systems) of an artificial intelligence" (AIS). Why it is better? Because in this case it is possible to not apply for this or that definition of concept "Intelligence" (some tens are included already), and simply to have in view of any artificial (made, roughly speaking, hands of the person) the system imitating some aspects of cogitative activity of the person. In other words, to define not a certain virtual reality, and quite concrete thing.
2. Yes psychologists and experts of adjacent representations will forgive me, but on my understanding it is represented, that all activity of the person anyhow connected to its powers of thinking can be divided into three categories, roughly:
1) cognitive or contemplate activity - training and-or self-training;
2) creative or creative activity - differently invention;
3) homeostaticactivity - differently life-support.
The first sort of activity is connected to acquisition by the person of the new information, its processing, transmission (exchange), organization of storages, extract or receptions of new knowledge, etc.
The second sort as it is represented - all this that concerns to "изобретательской" activity of the person on perfecting existing and to creation of new subjects and instruments of work, resources of rest, enjoying, etc. - on the basis of the knowledge, received as a result of the previous sort of activity.
At last,гомеостатическая activity is directed on maintenance by available resources and resources existence of the person as sort. Here instruments of work, a resource, the adaptations created as a result of the previous sort of activity, in general, all improvised resources, with reference to an environment (an oil recovery, cultivation of a new crop, collection of mushrooms, cultivation коз, etc.) are used.
3. We shall remark, that separate groups of people, their communities, the whole countries not always and not everywhere are engaged simultaneously in all listed sortsдеятельностями. On what it depends? Most likely, from a level of development of a society, a level of its well-being. So, in the poor and poorest countries массово invention or extraction of new knowledge - not up to fat is advanced, to be I would live (we shall recollect some countries of Africa and Asia). The first and second levels of activity - more likely destiny of very rich, advanced countries (the USA, Japan, Germany). Russia, alas, at a today's stage is close more likely to the poor and poorest countries. We shall remark, by the way, here the defined paradox: without occupations by the first and second sort of activity this or that country never can leave for group of world leaders; but if in the country there are not enough resources for this purpose (financial, human, etc.), It is possible to overcome nevertheless the marked obstacle - at the expense of the state (complex) programs of stimulation and development of the marked activity (as, for example, it is made in China and Northern Korea).
4. Coming back now to systems of artificial intelligence (AIS), it is possible to mark:
1) Such systems, as a rule, on the basis of computer facilities, can create only industrially advanced, rich, both money, and human resources of the country - as it follows from previous;
2)AIS should share, apparently, on the same sorts on which intelligent (cogitative) human activity shares, i.e. on:
·AIS for cloning cognitive activity of the person (automatic theorem proving, output of new formulas, obtaining of new knowledge of what or - without involvement of the person, etc.),
·AIS for automation (cloning) invention activity of the person (in this direction, perhaps closely there are systems of automation of designing - a CAD though it and at all that; it is possible, the truth, here to attribute "intelligent" systems on writing electronic music, game in a chess and similar),
·AIS for cloning or implementation homeostatic activity of the person.
Let's stop on these lastAIS more in detail because, similar, such AIS more all are claimed in practice (medical diagnostic systems, systems of military assignment, system of prediction of weather, a various sort expert systems (ES) and decision support systems, etc.).
These systems if to consider them from the formal point of view, everyone realize some integrated algorithm:
1) Automatic estimation of conditions of world around (situation);
2) Review possible (incorporated in a knowledge base) alternatives;
3) A choice - by this or that principle of the "best" alternative;
4) Output of the command on its implementation (or output of guidelines on its implementation).
Difficulties in their creation are known; main from them - creation of set of alternatives, process which yet does not give in to automation or even formalizing.
Instead of the resume.
1. It is more preferable to operate not with virtual concept "Artificial intelligence", and quite material - "Systems of an artificial intelligence", understanding under them fulfilled on the basis of resources of computer equipment the systems imitating defined cogitative operations Homo Sapiens Sapiens.
2. It is possible to offer classification of the marked systems on directions of cogitative activity of the person, onAIS, simulating its cognitive or contemplate activity, further, its creative or изобретательскую activity and AIS, simply simulating or providing ability to live of the person.
3. A choice of tasks for research in areaAIS enough big, but, apparently, at research of a specific target it is necessary for each contributor to solve for itself a pragmatical question: what for him it is more important - satisfaction of own scientific inquisitiveness or certain mercantile purposes? Put in how practice of the last years shows, corporations, and the states охотнее and most generously finance the projects directed on creation AIS of the third type (СИИ support of ability to live). At the same time, theoretical base for implementation of such systems provide, as though, much worse financed AIS first two types.
4. And the latter. At least, strange, to declare such tools, as the device of artificial neural networks (ANN), fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms units of systems of an artificial intelligence. It - is simple some collection of original algorithms, no more that. So, ИНС and methods of fuzzy logic - universal remedies for approximating multivariate functions, and genetic algorithms - a resource for finding extremums of such functions.
Operation is fulfilled on faculty of applied computer science and mathematics of Smolensk branch of the Russian university of cooperation.